Alexander Pushkin (26 May [6 June] 1799, Moscow - 29 January [10 February] 1837, St. Petersburg) - Russian poet, playwright and novelist, laid the foundations of Russian realist movement, critic and literary theorist, historian, publicist; one of the most influential literary figures of the first third of the XIX century.
Pushkin in his work, It is an artistic encyclopedia of Russian life, He raised the fundamental social problems of the time: autocracy and the people, the identity and the state, tragic loneliness advanced aristocratic intelligentsia Golden Age.
During the life of Pushkin has developed his reputation as the greatest Russian poet of the national. Pushkin is considered as the founder of modern Russian literary language.
Origin Alexander Pushkin comes from branched untitled noble family of Pushkin, goes back to the genealogical legend "an honest husband" Ratshe. Pushkin wrote repeatedly about his ancestry in verse and prose; he saw in the example of their ancestors true "aristocracy", ancient clan, to serve the fatherland, but not curry favor with the rulers and "persecuted". More than once he spoke (including an art form) and to the image of his great-grandfather on his mother - African Abram Petrovich Hannibal, I became a servant and pupil of Peter I, and then a military engineer and general.
Paternal grandfather Lev - Artillery Colonel, Guard captain. Father - Sergei L. Pushkin (1767—1848), secular wit and poet-lover. Pushkin's mother - Nadezhda Osipovna (1775—1836), grandson Hannibal. paternal uncle, Davidov (1766—1830), It was a famous poet of the circle Karamzin. Of the children of Sobolev and Hope Osipovna, but Alexander, survived daughter Olga (in marriage Pavlishcheva, 1797—1868) and son Leo (1805—1852).
Pushkin was born 26 May (6 June) 1799 g. in Moscow, in the German Quarter. In the register of the Church of the Epiphany in Yelokhovo to date 8 June 1799 city, among others, accounts such record:
“May 27. In the courtyard Kollezhsky Registrar Ivan Vasiliev Skvartsova the resident has his Moora Sergei L. Pushkin was born the son of Alexander. baptized June 8 day. Godfather Count Artemije Ivanovich Vorontsov, godmother mother of the said Sergey Pushkin's widow Olga Pushkin”.
The summer months of 1805-1810, the future poet usually spent with his grandmother on his mother Mary Alekseevny Hannibal (1745—1818, nee Pushkina, from another branch of the family), in the village of Zakharov, near Zvenigorod. Early childhood experiences were reflected in the first experiments of Pushkin's poems, written later ("Monk", 1813; «Bova», 1814), lyceum poems in "Message to Yudin" (1815), "Sleep" (1816). Grandmother wrote about his grandson the following:
“I do not know, what comes out of my eldest grandson. The boy is clever and fond of books, and learns bad, rarely lesson his surrender order; then it does not stir, not drive out to play with children, suddenly so unfold and odds, that it does not uymosh: from one extreme to the other strikes, he has no middle”.
Six years Pushkin spent in Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, open 19 October 1811 of the year. Here the young poet survived the events of World War II 1812 of the year. It first opened and was highly otsenon his poetic gift. Memories of the years, conducted at the Lyceum, Lyceum of the brotherhood forever remain in the poet's soul.
In the period of Pushkin lyceum it was created many works of poetry. He was inspired by the French poets of XVII-XVIII centuries, with the work that he had met as a child, reading books from the library of his father. Favorite authors were young Pushkin, Voltaire and boys. In his early lyrics combine the traditions of French and Russian classical. Teachers of Pushkin, the poet became Batyushkov, recognized master "light poetry", Zhukovsky, head of national romanticism. Pushkin's poetry 1813-1815 period riddled with motives of the transience of life, who enjoyed the pleasures of being the thirst of enjoyment. WITH 1816 of the year, after Zhukovsky, he refers to elegy, where it develops the characteristic of this genre motifs: unrequited love, youth care, quench people. Lyrics of Pushkin more imitative, full of literary conventions and cliches, Yet even then an aspiring poet chooses his, special way. Not confined to poetry chamber, Pushkin turned to more complex topics, socially significant. "Memoirs in Tsarskoye Selo" (1814), gain the approval Derzhavina, - initially 1815 I read the poem, Pushkin in his presence, - dedicated to the events of World War II 1812 of the year. The poem was published in 1815 in the journal "Russian Muzeum" of the full signature of the author. But in Pushkin's epistle "Licinius" critically depicted modern life in Russia, where, in the form of "pet despot" launched Arakcheyev. Already in the beginning of his career he was interested in the Russian satirical writer of the last century. Fonvizina influence is felt in a satirical poem by Pushkin "Shadow Fonvizina" (1815); associated with the work of Radishchev "Bova" (1814) and "infidelity".
In July 1814 , Pushkin made his first appearance in print was published in Moscow, "the Bulletin of Europe" magazine. In the thirteenth issue was published poem, "To the friend, the poet", signed by the pseudonym Alexander N.k.sh.p. and converted to Kiichelbecker.
Even as a pupil of the Lyceum, Pushkin entered the literary society "Arzamas", opposes routine and archaic in the literary fact, and to take effective part in the controversy with the association "Lovers of the Russian Word", defended the classical canons of the last century. Attracted by the works of the most prominent representatives of the new literary movement, Pushkin had at that time strongly influenced by poetry Batiushkov, Zhukovsky, Davydova. Last initially impressed Pushkin theme brave warriors, and after the, that the poet himself called "torsion verse" - mood swings, expression, an images compound. Later, Pushkin said, что, imitating a young man Davidov, "Assimilated his style forever".
Lyceum of Pushkin was released in June 1817 years in the rank of a collegiate secretary (10-first class, on the Table of Ranks) and defined in the College of Foreign Affairs. He becomes a regular visitor to the theater, takes part in meetings of the "Arzamas" (he was accepted back in absentia, while still a pupil of Lyceum), at 1819 year enrolls literary and theater community, "Green Lamp", which is headed 'Welfare Union " (cm. Decembrists). Not participating in the activities of the first secret organizations, Pushkin nevertheless linked by bonds of friendship with many active members of the Decembrists Societies, He writes political epigrams and poems "To Chaadaev" ("Love, hope, silent glory ... ", 1818), "Liberty" (1818), "n. I. Plyuskovoy " (1818), "Village" (1819), were distributed in the lists. During these years, he is busy working on the poem "Ruslan and Ludmila", started at the Lyceum and answer program installations literary society "Arzamas" about the need for a national heroic poem. The poem was published in May 1820 of the year (on the list of previously known) and it causes various, not always benevolent, responses. After the expulsion of around Pushkin poem sparked controversy. Some critics were outraged by the high reduction of the canon. Mixing in "Ruslan and Ludmilla" Russian-French techniques of verbal expressions of folklore and vernacular styling and triggered accusations by the defenders of the democratic nation in the literature. These complaints contained the letter D. Zykov, literary follower Katenin, published in "Son of the fatherland".
On South (1820—1824)
spring 1820 year Pushkin was summoned to the military governor-general of St. Petersburg M Earl. BUT. Miloradovich for explanations about the content of his poems (including epigrams on Arakcheeva, Archimandrite Photius and of Alexander I), incompatible with the status of a public official. I dealt with the deportation to Siberia or imprisoned in the Solovki Monastery. Only thanks to the efforts of friends, primarily Karamzin, succeeded in mitigation of punishment. He was transferred from the capital to the south in the Chisinau office and the. n. Inzov.
On the way to a new duty station Alexander ill with pneumonia, swim in the river. To recuperate Rajewski taken out in late May 1820 the poet, the patient to the Caucasus and the Crimea. Along the way the family Rayevskys and A. WITH. Pushkin stop in g. Taganrog, in the former home of the mayor P. BUT. Papkova (str. Greek, 40).
Pushkin in the Crimea
16 August 1820 , Pushkin arrived in Feodosiya. He wrote to his brother Lev:
"From the Kerch we arrived in Cafu, ostanovylys in Bronevskoho, honorable man of immaculate service and poverty. Now he is on trial - and, Like the old man Virgil, separates the garden by the sea, near the town. Grapes and almonds make up his income. He's not a smart man, but it has great information about Crimea. Side of an important and neglected. From here we went to the sea by noon coast of Tauris, in Yurzuf, where there was a family Rajewski. At night on the ship, I wrote an elegy, which sends you ".
Two days later, along with Pushkin Rajewski served sea Gurzuf.
Pushkin in Gurzuf spent several weeks in the summer and autumn 1820 of the year. Together with Rajewski, he stayed at the home of the Duke of Richelieu; the poet in him was granted a mezzanine, facing west. Zhyvya in Gurzufe, the poet made a lot of walks along the coast and in the mountains, which included a trip on horseback to the top of the Ayu-Dag, and a boat trip to Cape Suuk-Su.
In Gurzuf Pushkin continued to work on the poem "Prisoner of the Caucasus", I wrote several lyrical poems; Some of them are dedicated daughters H. n. Rajewski - Catherine, Elena and Maria. There arose a poet "The Fountain of Bakhchisarai" the idea of the poem and the novel "Eugene Onegin". At the end of his life he remembered about the Crimea: "There's the cradle of my Onegin".
In September 1820 g. on the way to Simferopol visited Bakhchisarai. From a letter Delvig:
“... Voshed palace, I saw the damaged fountain, of rusted iron pipe dropwise falling water. I walked around the palace with great annoyance to neglect, in which he perish, and poluevropeyskogo rework some rooms”.
Walking on patios Palace, poet plucked two roses and put them to the foot of the "fountain of tears", who later dedicated poems and poem "The Fountain of Bakhchisarai".
In mid-September, Pushkin spent about a week in Simferopol, presumably, house Tauride Governor Baranov Alexander Nikolayevich, an old acquaintance of the poet in St. Petersburg.
His impressions from visiting Crimea Pushkin used in the description of "Journey Onegin", which at first was a part of "Eugene Onegin" poem as an annex.
Only in September, he arrives in Chisinau. The new chief is easy on the service of Pushkin, allowing him to be away for a long time and visit with friends in Kamenka (winter 1820-1821), travel to Kiev, travel to and. P. Liprandi of Moldova and to go and see in Odessa (конец 1821). In Chisinau Pushkin close contact with members of the Union of Welfare M. F. Orlov, TO. BUT. Ochotnikov, AT. F. Rajewski, enters a Masonic lodge "Ovid", what he wrote in his diary. If the poem "Ruslan and Lyudmila" was the result of the school with the best Russian poets, the very first "southern poem" Pushkin's "Prisoner of the Caucasus" (1822) I put him in charge of the whole of modern Russian literature, brought deserved fame first poet, always accompanying him until the end of the 1820s. Later, in 1830 he received the epithet "Russian Byron".
Later comes another "southern poem" "The Fountain of Bakhchisarai" (1824). The poem turned fragmentary, though fraught with something unsaid, that and give it a special charm, exciting in the reader's perception of a strong emotional field. P. BUT. Vyazemsky wrote from Moscow on this occasion:
“The appearance of "The Fountain of Bakhchisarai" worthy of attention not some poetry lovers, but also the success of our observers in mental industry, which also, not in anger be said, contributes, as well as other, the welfare state. The manuscript of the little poems of Pushkin was paid three thousand rubles; it does not have six hundred poems; so, verse (and even what kind of? note for the exchange of appraisers - small chetyrestopny verse) He has managed in five rubles from surplus. verse Beyrona, Casimir avalanche, Walter Scott line brings a significant percentage more, it's true! But remember and then, victuals capitalists that charge a percentage from all educated consumers on the globe, and our capital and turn to the close family circle. Howbeit, for poetry "Bakchisarayskogo fountain" paid much, much more for any Russian poetry has not been paid”.
However, the poet is trying to appeal to Russian antiquity, outlining plans poems "Mstislav" and "Vadim" (last idea took shape and dramatic), It creates a satirical poem "Gabrieliad" (1821), poem "Brothers robbers" (1822; separate edition 1827). Over time, the conviction ripened in Pushkin (at first hopelessly tragic), that there are objective laws of the world, shake that man can not, no matter how brave and beautiful his thoughts. In this way began in May 1823 year in Chisinau novel in verse "Eugene Onegin"; the finale of the first chapter of the novel suggested travel story of the hero outside the country along the lines of the poem of Byron's "Don Juan".
Meanwhile, in July, 1823 , Pushkin sought by the translation service to Odessa in the office of Count Vorontsov. It was during this time that he is aware of himself as a professional writer, which explains the rapid success of the reader of his works. Courting his wife chief, but, possibly, and an affair with her, and the inability to public service exacerbated his relationship with Vorontsov. Four-year stay in the south of Pushkin - a new romantic stage of development of him as a poet. At this time, Pushkin became acquainted with the works of Byron and Chenier. Fascinated by the personality of Byron, by his own admission poet "went crazy" from him. the first poem, created by him in exile, became Elegy "extinguished daylight was shining ...", in which Pushkin noted subtitle: "Imitation of Byron". The core, the main objective of his work was a reflection of a person's emotional state, disclosure of his inner life. Artistic form of verse Pushkin developed, referring to the ancient Greek poetry, studying it in translation. Rethinking creative thinking ancient poets in a romantic way, taking the best from the work of their predecessors, breaking the seals elegiac style, he created his own poetic language. The main feature of Pushkin's poetry became its expressive power and at the same time extraordinary compactness, laconicism. Formed in the years 1818-1820 under the influence of French poetry and elegies Zhukovsky conditional melancholic style has undergone a serious transformation and merged with the new "Byronic" style. The combination of old, complexity; and conditional forms with romantic colors and tensions clearly evident in "Prisoner of the Caucasus".
For the first time the young poet was here in the summer 1817 year and, himself he wrote in one of his autobiographies, I was fascinated by the "rural life, Russian bath, strawberry and so on., - but I liked it a short time ". AT 1824 by police in Moscow was opened a letter of Pushkin, where he wrote about the fascination with "atheistic doctrines". This caused the resignation of the poet 8 July 1824 years of service. He was exiled to the estate of his mother, and I spent two years (until September 1826) - this is the longest stay of Pushkin in St. Michael.
Soon after the arrival of Pushkin in Mikhailovskoye he took a big quarrel with her father, actually agreed on a secret of his own son oversight. In late autumn, all native Pushkin left the Mikhailovsky.
Contrary to the fears of friends, privacy in the village did not become detrimental to Pushkin. Despite the difficult experiences, Michael's first fall was fruitful for the poet, He read a lot, thinking, have worked. Pushkin often visited her neighbor on the estate II. BUT. Osipov Trigorskoye and used its library (Osipova father, mason, H colleague. AND. Novikov, He left a large collection of books). Mikhailovsky links to end the life of his friendly relations with Osipova and members of her extended family. In Trigorskoye in 1826 , Pushkin met with the language, poems which were known to him with 1824 of the year.
Pushkin completes started in Odessa poem "Conversation with the bookseller poet", which formulates his professional credo, "To the Sea" - a lyrical meditation on human destiny Napoleon and Byron, of the brutal power over the individual historical circumstances, poem "The Gypsies" (1827), He continues to write a novel in verse. In the autumn 1824 , he resumes work on autobiographical notes, left at the beginning of time in Chisinau, and considering the story of folk drama "Boris Godunov" (over 7 (19) November 1825, published in 1831), She wrote a humorous poem "Count Nulin". Just Mikhailovsky therefore created about a hundred works.
AT 1825 year meets Trigorskoye Osipova's niece Anna Kern, which, as is commonly believed, dedicates the poem "I remember a wonderful moment ...".
A month after he came back links "free to leave the prison," and spent about a month in the Michael. Subsequent years, so periodically come here, to take a break from city life and write free. In Michael's in 1827 , Pushkin began the novel "Negro of Peter the Great".
In Michael's poet also was introduced to the game of billiards, although an outstanding player, he did not, but, memories of friends, I handled the cue on the cloth quite professional.
On the night 3 on 4 September 1826 at Mikhailovskoye comes a messenger from the governor of the Pskov B. BUT. Aderkas: Pushkin, accompanied by courier must appear in Moscow, which at the time was Nicholas I, crowned 22 August.
8 September, immediately after arrival, Pushkin delivered to the emperor for a personal audience. Nicholas conversation with Pushkin took place face to face. The poet on his return from exile guaranteed the highest private protection and relief from the usual censorship.
It was during these years occurs in Pushkin's interest in the person of Peter I, king-converter. He becomes the hero of the novel of the great-grandfather started the poet, Abram Hannibal, and the new "Poltava" poem. As part of a poetic work ("Poltava") poet united several serious topics: Russian and European relations, peoples association, happiness and drama of a private person against the backdrop of historical events. By his own admission Pushkin, it attracted "strong character and deep, tragic shadow, I sketched all these horrors ". published in 1829 year, the poem did not find any understanding among readers, There are critics. The draft manuscript "Objections critics" Poltava "," Pushkin wrote:
“The most mature with all my poetic stories, and, in which almost all the original (and from this we just keep hitting our, though it is also not important), - "Poltava", which Zhukovsky, Gnedich, Delvig, Vyazemskij prefer around, I still have not written, "Poltava" not a success”.
By that time in the poet's works marked a new turn. A sober analysis of the historical and social reality, combined with the realization of complexity often elude rational explanation of the world, that fills his work a sense of anxious foreboding, It leads to a broad invasion fiction, creates sad, sometimes painful memories, intense interest in death.
At the same time after his poem "Poltava" attitude to criticism and among some of the reading public became more cold or critical.
AT 1827 year began an investigation into the poem "Andre Chenier" (written as early as in St. Michael 1825), which was a response to the events will provide 14 December 1825, and 1828 Government became known Kishinev poem "Gabrieliad". These cases have been on the highest command terminated after an explanation of Pushkin, but the poet was established a secret police surveillance.
December 1828 , Pushkin met with Moscow's beauty, 16-old Natalia Goncharova. Professedly, He loved her from the first meeting. In the end of April 1829 years later Fedor Tolstoy, Pushkin Americans made an offer Goncharova. Inconclusive response girl mother (the reason was named youth Natalia), According to Pushkin, "I svol him crazy". He left the army Paskevich, the Caucasus, where at that time there was a war with Turkey. His trip he described in "Journey to Erzerum". At the insistence of Paskevich, who did not want to take responsibility for the life of Pushkin, He left the army, I lived for a time in Tiflis. Returning to Moscow, he met Goncharov cold shoulder. maybe, Natalia's mother feared reputation freethinker, consolidate the Pushkin, his poverty and passion for the game.
Pushkin feels the need to change everyday. AT 1830 by repeated his courtship of Natalia Nikolaevna Goncharova was made, and in the autumn he went to Nizhny Novgorod estate of his father Boldin for taking possession of the nearby village Kisteneva, donated by the father to the wedding. Cholera quarantines poet detained for three months, and this pore was destined to become famous boldins, the highest point of creativity Pushkin, when from his pen poured out a whole library of works: "Tales of the Late Ivan Petrovich Belkin" ("Pay Belkina"), "The experience of dramatic studies" ("Little Tragedies"), the last chapter of "Eugene Onegin", "Little House in Kolomna", "The history of the village Gorukhino", "The Tale of the Priest and of His Workman Balda", some sketches and critical articles about 30 poems.
Among the works of Boldino, as if deliberately unlike one another by genre and tone, especially in contrast with one another two cycles: prose and drama. These are the two poles of his work, which gravitate other works, written in the three months of autumn 1830.
Poetic works of this period are still a variety of genres, and cover a wide range of topics. One of them - "Ruddy Critic my ..." echoes the "history of the village Gorukhino" and as far from the idealization of rural reality, that was first published in a posthumous collection of essays under the changed name ("Caprice").
"Belkin" were the first extant completed work of Pushkin's prose, experiences to the creation of which they were made repeatedly. AT 1821 , he formulated the basic law of his prose narration: "The accuracy and brevity - this is the first dignity of prose. It requires thought and ideas - without them brilliant expression to anything not serve ". These stories - as a kind of memoir of an ordinary man, which the, not finding anything significant in your life, fills his notes retelling stories heard, struck his imagination with their uniqueness. "Tales of ..." marked the completion of which began in 1827 year with the "Moor of Peter the Great," the formation of Pushkin as a writer. Cycle defined as the future direction of Pushkin - the last six years of his life he appealed primarily to prose,- and all, has not yet been developed Russian artistic prose word.
At the same time Pushkin took an active part in the publication of "Literary Gazette" (newspaper published from 1 January 1830 g. by 30 June 1831 city) And his friend the publisher. BUT. Delvig. Delvig, preparing the first two numbers, temporarily I left St. Petersburg and ordered the newspaper to Pushkin, who became the de facto editor of the first 13 rooms. Conflict "Literary Gazette" poluofitsioznoy editor of the newspaper "The Northern Bee" F. AT. Bulgarinym, Third separating agent, brought, after the publication of the newspaper quatrains Casimir Delavigne of the victims of the July Revolution, to the closure of publications.
18 February (2 Martha) 1831 crowned with Natalia Goncharova in Moscow Church of the Great Ascension Nikitsky Gate. When ring sharing ring Pushkina dropped on the floor. Then he extinguished the candle. He turned pale and said,: "Everything - bad omen!».
Immediately after the wedding, the Pushkin family settled briefly in Moscow on Arbat, house 53 (in modern numbering; now a museum). There the couple lived until mid-May 1831 of the year, when, without waiting for the end of the lease term, We went to the capital, since Pushkin fell out with the mother-in, interfere with his family life.
Pushkin took the summer cottage in Tsarskoye Selo. Here he wrote "Letter to Onegin", thereby finally completing work on the novel verses, which was his "faithful companion" during the eight years of his life.
A new perception of reality, It has been observed during his work in the late 1820s, required-depth study of history: it should find the origins of the fundamental questions of our time. Pushkin actively replenished his personal library of Russian and foreign publications, connected with the history of Peter's time. BUT. AND. Turgenev wrote in it "talent treasures, observation and erudition of Russia, especially of Peter and Catherine, few, only ... No one so well judged Russian recent history: He matured for her and knew and found fame in, much, that others do not notice ". AT 1831 he was allowed to work in the archives. Pushkin again entered the service as a "historian", Get top job to write "The History of Peter". cholera riots, horrible in its cruelty, Polish events, brought Russia to the brink of war with Europe, is therefore of the Russian statehood threat. Strong power in these circumstances, it seems to him the key to the salvation of Russia - this idea inspired by his poem "Before the tomb of the saint ...", "Slanderers of Russia", "The Anniversary of Borodino". The last two, written on the occasion of the capture of Warsaw, with poems. BUT. Zhukovsky "An old song in a new way" were published a special pamphlet "On the capture of Warsaw" and received a mixed reaction. Pushkin, never, former enemy of any nation, a friend of Mickiewicz, nevertheless I could not accept the claims of the rebels to join the Polish Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Belarusian lands. Different attitude to Pushkin's response to the events in Poland his friends: Vyazemskij negative and A. AND. Turgenev. 22 September 1831 year in his diary he wrote Vyazemsky:
Pushkin in his poetry: Slanderers Russia seems to them a fig from his pocket. He knows, that they did not read his poetry, Consequently, and will not respond to questions, which answer would be very easy for even the most Pushkin. <…> And again, for sacrilege combined with Borodino Warsaw? Russian cries out against this lawlessness.
He chaadaev also sent after the publication of poetry of the author of an enthusiastic letter, his position is shared by the exiled Decembrists. However, F. AT. Bulgarin, associated with the branch III, He accused the poet of the commitment to liberal ideas.
Since the beginning of 1830s prose in Pushkin begins to prevail over the poetic genres. "Pay Belkina" (published in 1831) g. unsuccessful. Pushkin plotting broad epic canvas - the novel from the era of the hero-Pugachevshchina nobleman, defected to the rebels. This idea at the time to leave because of lack of knowledge of the era, and begin work on the novel "Dubrovsky" (1832—33), his character, revenge for his father, who unjustly took away the family estate, It is becoming a robber. Noble robber Dubrovsky is depicted in a romantic way, the remaining characters are shown with great realism. Although the story based on works by Pushkin gleaned from contemporary life, in the course of the novel is increasingly acquiring the features of a traditional narrative adventure with atypical in general for the Russian reality collision. maybe, anticipating to the same censorship insurmountable difficulties with the publication of the novel, Pushkin left his job over it, Although the novel was also nearing completion. The plan works on pugachovskom riot again draws it, and, a true historical accuracy, it breaks at the time of classes on the Petrine era, shtudiruet printed sources of Pugachev, It is seeking access to documents on the suppression of the peasant uprising (very "matter of Pugachev", highly classified, It is unavailable), and 1833 g. He is taking a trip to the Volga and the Urals, to see firsthand the terrible events space, hear stories about living Pugachevshchina. Pushkin goes through Nizhny Novgorod, Cheboksary, Kazan and Simbirsk to Orenburg, and from there to Uralsk, along the ancient river Yaik, renamed after the peasant uprising in the Urals.
7 January 1833 Pushkin was elected a member of the Russian Academy together with P. BUT. Katenin, M. n. Zagoskin, D. AND. Linguistic and A. AND. Malov.
In the autumn 1833 , he returned to Boldin. Now Boldin Autumn Pushkin twice shorter, than three years ago, but the value of it is commensurate boldins 1830 of the year. Six weeks Pushkin finalizing a "History of Pugachev" and "Songs of the Western Slavs", He started working on the story "The Queen of Spades", It creates the poem "Angelo" and "The Bronze Horseman", "The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish" and "The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights", a poem in octaves "Autumn".
In November 1833 , Pushkin returned to St. Petersburg, feeling the need to abruptly change the life and above all to get out of the custody of the court.
on the eve 1834 , Nicholas I assigns his historiographer junior court title gentleman of the bedchamber. According to friends of Pushkin, he was furious: this title is usually given to young people. The diary 1 January 1834 , Pushkin recorded:
“The third day, I complained to the gentleman of the bedchamber (which is quite unseemly at my age). But the Court wanted, to N. N. [Natalia] tantsovala in Anichkov”.
At the same time the publication of "The Bronze Horseman" has been banned. At the beginning 1834 , Pushkin finished writing another, prosaic Petersburg stories - "The Queen of Spades" and placed it in the journal "Library for Reading", Pushkin who paid promptly and to the highest rates. It was started in Boldin and intended then, по-видимому, for sharing with B. F. Odoevskim and N. AT. Gogol anthology "Tripharmacum".
25 June 1834 Pushkin, the titular counselor submits resignation with a request to keep the right to work in the archives, necessary for the performance of "Stories of Peter". The motive was given the family business and the impossibility of a permanent presence in the capital. The request was made to the refusal to use the archives, as Pushkin was formally archive official at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In this way, Pushkin was deprived of the opportunity to continue the work. Following the advice of Zhukovsky, Pushkin has withdrawn the petition. Later, Pushkin asked to leave for 3-4 years: summer 1835 , he wrote to the mother-in, that he was going with the whole family to go to the village for a few years. However, he was denied leave, instead of Nicholas I offered six months' leave and 10000 rubles, as mentioned, "Helps to". Pushkin did not take them and asked 30000 rubles on condition of retaining his salary, leave was granted for four months. So in the next few years Pushkin was associated service in St. Petersburg. This amount does not cover even half of the debts of Pushkin, with the termination of payment of salaries had to rely solely on fictional income, depended on reader demand. In the end 1834 - early 1835 year came out a few final editions of Pushkin: the full text of "Eugene Onegin" (in 1825-32 the novel was published in separate chapters), Collected poems, stories, poems, but they are at variance with difficulty. Criticism is already in full voice talking about the degeneration of talent Pushkin, about the end of his era in Russian literature. Two autumn - 1834 of the year (in Boldin) and 1835 of the year (in St Michael) They were less fruitful. The third time, the poet came to Boldino autumn 1834 years of confusing matters of the estate and lived there for a month, writing a "Tale of the Golden Cockerel". In Michael Pushkin he continued to work on "the scene of knightly times", "Egyptian night", created the poem "Once again I visited".
the general public, laments the fall of Pushkin's talent, it was unknown, that the best of his works were not allowed to print, that walked in those years, a permanent, intense work over large designs: "History of Peter", novel about Pugachevshchina. The poet's work matured fundamental changes. Pushkin lyric in these years is mainly a "poet for themselves". He strongly experimenting now with prosaic genres, which do not satisfy it completely, remain in designs, outline, drafts, seeking new forms of literature.
According to C.. BUT. Sobolev:
“The idea of a large periodical publications, which would deal with the possibility of all the main aspects of Russian life, the desire to directly serve their fatherland feather, Pushkin occupied almost continuously in the last ten years of his short-term pursuits ... Circumstances prevented him, and only 1836 g. he managed to procure themselves the right to publish "Contemporary", but in very limited amounts and close”.
Since the closure of "Literary newspaper", he sought the right to own periodical. Plans were not implemented newspaper ("A diary"), various anthologies and collections, "Northern viewer", edit that was in. F. Odoyevski. Together with him in Pushkin 1835 It was intended to produce "contemporary chronicler policy, Science and literature ". AT 1836 , he received permission to year edition of the almanac. Pushkin counted as income, to help him pay his most pressing debts. founded in 1836 the magazine was named "Contemporary". In it published works of Pushkin, and H. AT. Gogol, BUT. AND. Turgenev, AT. BUT. Zhukovsky, P. BUT. Viazemsky.
However, magazine reader's success had: a new type of serious periodicals, devoted to topical issues, interpreted by hints necessary, Russian public had yet to get used to. The magazine appeared only 600 subscribers, making it ruinous for the publisher, since it is not covered by any printing costs, no fees of employees. The last two volumes of "Contemporary" Pushkin was more than half filled with his works, for the most part anonymous. In the fourth volume of "Contemporary" was, finally, published the novel "The Captain's Daughter". Pushkin could release it as a book, then the novel could bring income, so he needs. However, he still decided to publish "The Captain's Daughter" in a magazine and was no longer able to rely on simultaneous output in book, in those days it was impossible to. probably, the novel has been placed in the "Contemporary" influenced Krajewski and magazine publisher, who feared its collapse. "The Captain's Daughter" had been favorably received by readers, but critics rave reviews about his latest novel in print, Pushkin could not see. Despite the financial failure, Pushkin until the last day was busy publishing chores, "counting, against fate, find and educate its readers ".
spring 1836 year after a serious illness died Hope Osipovna. Pushkin, Having become acquainted with the mother in the last days of her life, hard to bear this loss. Circumstances are, что он, the only family member, Hope Osipovna accompanied the body to the burial site in Holy Mountains. It was his last visit to Mikhailovskoye. At the beginning of May to the publishing business, and to work in the archives of Pushkin arrived in Moscow. He hoped for cooperation in the "Contemporary" authors "of the Moscow observer". However Baratynsky, Pogodin, hamsters, Shevyrev took the time to answer, expressly denying. Besides Pushkin counted, that the magazine will write Belinsky, is in conflict with Pogodin. Visiting the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he was convinced, that work with documents of the Petrine era will take several months. On the insistence of his wife, awaited from day to day delivery, Pushkin in late May, returned to St. Petersburg.
According to the memoirs of the French publisher and diplomat Loewe-Weimar, I visited in the summer 1836 years away in Pushkin, he was fascinated by "History of Peter", He shared with his guest of the results of archival searches and fears, how to perceive eBook readers, is shown where the king "so, as it was in the early years of his reign,, when he brought the fury of all the sacrifice its goal ". Learning, that Loewe-Weimar is interested in Russian folk songs, Pushkin made translations of the eleven songs on the French for him. According to experts, studying the work of Pushkin, it was carried out immaculate.
Summer 1836 , Pushkin creates his last poetic cycle, named for the place of writing (cottage on Stone Island) "Kamennoostrovsky". The exact composition unknown cycle verses. maybe, they were intended for publication in the "Contemporary", but Pushkin refused her, anticipating problems with censorship. three pieces, no doubt belonging to the cycle, linked evangelical theme. Cross-cutting theme poem "Desert Fathers and wife without fault", "As with the tree broke ..." and "temporal power" - Holy Week of Lent. Another poem of the cycle - "From Pindemonti" devoid of Christian symbols, but still thinking about the responsibilities of the poet living in peace with itself and the surrounding human, of treachery, the right to physical and spiritual freedom. According to The. P. Stark:
"In this poem formulated the perfect poetic and human credo Pushkin, through suffering throughout life ".
The cycle, probably, also included "When the country is thoughtful I wander", quatrain "I should not have run to Zion Gate" and, finally, (some researchers challenged this assumption) "Monument" ("I erected a monument to himself without hands ...") - as introductions or, other versions, finals, - poetic testament Pushkin.
Endless negotiations with his son in the name of the section after his mother's death, care of the publishing business, debts, and, the main thing, It became apparent deliberate courtship Horse Guards Dantes for his wife, povlokshee for a gossip in a secular society, were the cause of the oppressed condition of Pushkin autumn 1836 of the year. 3 November his friends was sent an anonymous lampoon a slur against Natalya Nikolaevna. Pushkin, who learned about the letters the next day, was sure, that they - the handiwork of Dantes and his adoptive father Gekkerna. in the evening 4 November, he sent a challenge to a duel Dantes. Gekkern (After two meetings with Pushkin) I won the duel delay for two weeks. Through the efforts of his friends, and, first of all, Zhukovsky and aunt Natalya Nikolaevna E. Zagryazhskaya, duel was averted. 17 November Dantes made a proposal to his sister Natalia Nikolaevna Goncharova Ekaterina. On the same day Pushkin sent his second in. BUT. Sollogoub letter of refusal to duel. Marriage is not to resolve the conflict. Edmond, meeting with Natalia Nikolaevna, in the light, He chased her. Spread rumors about, that Dantes married the sister of Pushkin, to save face Natalya Nikolaevna. According to K. TO. Danzas, Pushkin's wife offered to leave at the time of Petersburg, but he, "I lost all patience, I decided to come anyway ". Pushkin sent 26 January (7 February) 1837 Louis, the Heeckeren "highly insulting letter". The only answer he could only be a challenge to a duel, Pushkin knew. The formal challenge to a duel by Gekkerna, approved by Dantes, Pushkin was received on the same day through the attaché of the French Embassy Viscount d'Archiac. Since Gekkern was the ambassador of a foreign country, He could not fight a duel - it would mean the immediate collapse of his career.
Duel with Dantes held 27 of January at the Black River. Pushkin was wounded: bullet broke in his hip and got into the stomach. For that time the wound was fatal. Pushkin learned about it from the Life medic Arendt, which the, behind his insistence, He did not conceal the true state of affairs.
Before his death, Pushkin, put one's house in order, notes exchanged with Emperor Nicholas I. Notes passed two people:
AT. BUT. Zhukovsky - poet, at that time tutor heir, the future Emperor Alexander II.
n. F. Arendt - Life-physician of Emperor Nicholas I, Pushkin doctor.
Therefore we ask for forgiveness for the violation of the king's ban on duel:
“... I am waiting for the king's word, to die in peace ...”
“If God will not allow us to have on the local light svidetsya, I send you my forgiveness and my last piece of advice to die a Christian. About the wife and children do not worry, I take them at their hands.”
- It is believed, that the note gave Zhukovsky
Nicholas saw in Pushkin dangerous "leader of the free-thinkers" (in this context, measures have been taken, to funeral and burial took place more modestly as possible) and subsequently assured, "we hardly drove him to the death of a Christian", that does not correspond to reality: even before receiving the royal poet notes, learning from doctors, that his wound was fatal, She sent for a priest, to partake. 29 January (10 February) at 14:45 Pushkin died of peritonitis. Nicholas I fulfilled promises, data poet.
Sovereign Order of:
1. repay a debt.
2. Mortgaged the estate of his father clear of debt.
3. Widow pension and daughters for marriage.
4. Sons in the pages and 1500 rubles for the education of each entry in the service.
5. Works publish on public expense in favor of the widow and children.
6. at a time 10 000 rubles.
According to the wife of Pushkin's desire to put in the coffin is not camera-cadet uniform, and in cutaway. burial service, assigned to St. Isaac's Cathedral, It was transferred to the church Konjushennuju. The ceremony took place before large crowds, the church allowed by invitation only.
“Here, as per usual, were preposterous orders. The people were deceived: told, Pushkin's funeral service will be at St. Isaac's Cathedral, - so it was signified and on tickets, and yet the body was made from an apartment at night, secretly, and delivered to the church Stables. The university received strict instructions, so that the professor should not depart from their faculties and students were present at lectures. I could not resist, and expressed his regret guardian about it. Russian can not mourn their fellow citizen, honor to make them their existence!”
- From "Diary" A. AT. Nikitenko
After the coffin was lowered into the basement, where he stayed until 3 February, before departure to Pskov. A body accompanied Pushkina. AND. Turgenev. In a letter to the governor of Pskov Peshchurova A. n. Mordvins on behalf of the Emperor and Benkendorf pointed to the need to prohibit "any special expression of, any meeting, one word every ceremony, Besides, which is usually in our church rites performed at the burial of the body of a nobleman ". Alexander Pushkin was buried on the territory of the monastery Svyatogorsk Pskov province. In August 1841 , by order of N. n. Pushkin's grave was found a tombstone sculptor Alexander Permagorova (1786—1854).
descendants of Pushkin
Of the four children of Pushkin's only two left posterity - Alexander and Natalia. The descendants of the poet now living across the globe: in USA, England, Germany, Belgium. About fifty of them live in Russia, including Tatyana Lukash, whose great-grandmother (Pushkin's granddaughter) He was married to the great-nephew of Gogol. Now Tatiana lives in Klin.
Alexander Pushkin - the last direct descendant of the poet in the male line, He resides in Belgium.
Height A. WITH. Pushkin was 2 arshins 5 and a half inches (He stopped by the artist Gregory Chernetsov 15 April 1832 of the year). it 166,7 cm, that at that time there was a lot for a man (growth wife was Pushkina 173 cm). About the appearance of Pushkin's contemporaries have developed different opinions. To a large extent they depend on the attitude towards him. In the conventional sense, no one called Pushkin beautiful, However, many noted, that the lines of his face makes perfect, When it becomes a reflection of his spirituality. M. AT. Yuzefovich especially pay attention to the eyes of Pushkin, "in which, it seemed, It reflected all the beauty in nature ". L. P. Nikolskaya, met in the 1833 Pushkin was at a dinner at the governor of Nizhny Novgorod, describes his:
"A little swarthy face was originally, but ugly: a large open forehead, long nose, thick lips - even irregular features. But he was great - it is dark gray with a tinge of blue eyes - big, clear. It is impossible to convey the expression of the eyes: some burning, and though caressing, Pleasant. I've never seen a person more expressive: clever, good, vigorous. <…> He speaks: ах, how many of mind and life in his speech neiskusstvennoy! And what is it fun, kind, beauty! This durnyashka might like ...
Literary reputation and the cultural role of Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin has a great reputation and the great Russian poet, in particular, because it refers to Encyclopedia "Krugosvet", "Russian Biographical Dictionary" and "Literary Encyclopedia". In philology Pushkin is considered as the founder of modern Russian literary language (cm. например, Started. AT. Vinogradova), and "Short Literary Encyclopedia" (From the author. WITH. Averincev) He speaks about the reference of his writings, Like the works of Dante in Italy or in Germany Goethe. D. WITH. Likhachev wrote about Pushkin as "our greatest national treasure".
During the life of the poet began to be called a genius, in Volume prime numbers printed. Since the second half of the 1820s, he was regarded as "the first Russian poet" (not only among contemporaries, but the Russian poets of all time), and around his personality he has developed a cult among readers. On the other hand, in 1830 is (after his poem "Poltava") and there has been a certain part of the cooling reading public Pushkin.
In the article "A few words about Pushkin" (1830-it is) n. AT. Gogol wrote, that "Pushkin is an extraordinary phenomenon and, may be, unique phenomenon of the Russian spirit: This Russian man in his development, in which he, may be, It will be through two hundred years ". Critic and philosopher-Westerner in. D. Belinsky called it "the first poet-artist of Russia". F. M. Dostoevsky noted, that "in" Onegin ", in the immortal poem of his and unattainable, Pushkin was a great national writer, both before and no one has ever "and spoke of" the universality and universal humanity of his genius ". The most capacious characteristic offered Apollon Grigoriev (1859): "But Pushkin - our all".
The study of Pushkin
Understanding of Pushkin in Russian culture is divided into two areas - artistic and philosophical, essayistic, the founders of which were Nikolai Gogol and Apollon Grigoriev (in this series - many Russian writers, including Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Marina Tsvetaeva and Alexander Solzhenitsyn, and philosophers), scientific and historical and biographical, pledged Pavel Annenkov and Peter Bartenev. The flowering of science of Pushkin in the early XX century Russia is connected with the creation of the Pushkin House in 1905 year, Pushkin's Seminary 1908 year, the advent of serial publications of Pushkin. In Soviet times, the study of the ideology of Pushkin restrictions under big development was the Pushkin and textual study of his style. A number of important achievements connected with Pushkin studies abroad (Poland, France, USA and others.), including the Russian emigration.
Negation of the values of Pushkin and his criticism of the cult
Publitsist- "sixties" and literary critic Dmitry Pisarev deny Pushkin creative value for our time: "Pushkin uses his artistic virtuosity, as a means to devote all reading Russia in the sad secret of her inner emptiness, their spiritual poverty and their intellectual impotence ". At the same position were many naysayers 1860, such, Maxim Antonovich and Bartholomew Zaitsev.
AT. Mayakovsky, D. Burliuk, AT. Khlebnikov, BUT. twisted, B. Livshits called "throw Pushkin [along with several other classics] from the ship of modernity "in the manifesto Futurist 1912 year "Slap in the Face of Public Taste". Further, in the manifesto stated: "Who does not forget his first love, I do not know the last " (Tiutchev paraphrase the words on the death of Pushkin: "You, like first love, Russian heart will not forget "). At the same time the highest rating of Pushkin gave Innocent Ann, Anna Akhmatova, Marina Tsvetaeva, Alexander Blok.
According to the journalist Solomon Volkov, with 1937 in the USSR the official ideology propagated the "cult of Pushkin".